1991-1998 of release
Repair and operation of the car
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Engines
+ 4. Heating and ventilation
+ 5. Fuel system
+ 6. Exhaust system
+ 7. Transmissions
+ 8. Coupling and half shafts
+ 9. Brake system
+ 10. Running gear
+ 11. Body
- 12. Electric equipment
12.2. Search of a source of malfunction in system of electric equipment
12.3. Safety locks
12.4. Automatic switches
12.6. Breaker of indexes of turns / alarm system
12.7. Switches on a steering column
12.8. Switch of ignition and drum of the lock
12.9. Switches on the dashboard
12:10. Tools of an instrument guard
12:11. Instrument guard
12:12. Radio receiver and loudspeakers
12:14. Bulbs of headlights of head light
12:15. Headlights of head light
12:16. Drive of headlights of head light
12:17. Replacement of bulbs
12:18. Engine of screen wipers
12:19. Horn of a sound signal
12:20. System of day inclusion of headlights
12:21. Heater of back glass
12:22. System cruise control
12:23. Power windows
12:24. Central lock and remote control of the central lock
12:25. A rear-view mirror with the electric drive
12:26. Top hatch
12:27. Safety airbag
+ 13. Electrical circuitries
+ 14. Useful tips
Search of a source of malfunction
The usual electric chain consists of an electric element, switches, the relay, engines, safety locks, the burned-through crossing points or automatic switches of this element, wires and sockets which connect this element to the accumulator and a body of the car. For the help by search of sources of malfunction of system of electric equipment, at the end of this management schemes of electric equipment of the car are provided.
Before to try to define a malfunction source, in the beginning study the corresponding scheme of electric equipment for receiving idea of the elements established in this chain. The circle of possible sources of malfunction can be narrowed if to check functioning of other elements entering this chain. If several elements or chains fail at the same time, then the problem obviously consists in a safety lock, the general for these chains or elements, or contact with a car body.
Electric problems are usually caused by the simple reasons, such as the weakened or rusted sockets, lack of contact with a car body, the fused safety lock, the melted burned-through crossing point or the faulty relay. Visually check a condition of all safety locks, wires and sockets in the failed chain before to start check of other elements.
If you are going to use instrumentations, use the scheme of electric equipment for definition of what of trailer clips need to be checked for detection of a source of malfunction.
The main tools necessary for detection of a source of malfunction are the device for verification of schemes or the voltmeter (the bulb on 12 volts and couple of wires with probes on the ends can be also used for conducting some checks); an ohmmeter (for measurement of resistance and check of chains on integrity); the battery and a set of wires with probes; a cap wire, it is desirable with the automatic switch or a safety lock which is used for a round of the checked wires or elements.
An inspection of tension in a chain has to is carried out if the system does not function normally. Connect one probe of a tester for verification of schemes to the negative plug of the accumulator or reliably grounded car element. Connect the second probe to the socket in the checked chain, it is desirable to that which is closer to the accumulator or a safety lock. If the bulb on a tester lights up, then on this socket there is tension, and it means that the site of a chain between the accumulator and this socket as it should be. Continue check of all chain in the same way. When you find a point where there is no tension, it means that malfunction is between this point and the last place where there was tension. In most cases bad connection of wires is a cause of defect.
To find the place of short circuit in system, it is necessary to remove a safety lock and to connect a control bulb or the voltmeter to the place of a safety lock. In a chain there should not be tension. Move wires here and there and you watch a control bulb. If the bulb lights up, it means that somewhere in this area there is a short circuit on "mass" of the car, most likely in the place where isolation was erased from wires. The same test can be carried out on other elements of a chain, including the ignition lock.
An inspection of grounding should be carried out to check reliability of grounding of an element of electric equipment. Disconnect the accumulator and connect the probe of a control bulb with own power supply, for example the device for check of integrity of chains, to one end of a chain and other probe by the second end of a chain. If the bulb lights up, it means that grounding good. If the bulb does not light up, grounding bad.
An inspection of a chain on integrity is carried out to check whether well a chain, the site of a chain or an element of a chain carries current. Disconnect the accumulator and connect the probe of a control bulb with own power supply, for example the device for check of integrity of chains, to one end of a chain and other probe by the second end of a chain. If the bulb lights up, it means that the chain is not interrupted and installs electrical equipment. Switches can be checked in the same way.
Do not forget that in an electric chain of the car current goes from the accumulator, passes through wires, switches, the relay, etc. to electric equipment elements (bulbs, engines, etc.). From them current goes on a car body (weight) on which comes back to the accumulator. Any electric malfunction is caused by interruption of a current of current from and to the accumulator.
Check of tension
Lack of tension on an element of electric equipment is most often caused by bad connection. Check the site of a chain between the accumulator and an element of electric equipment for integrity by means of the voltmeter.
Search of short circuit
For verification of short circuit remove a safety lock and connect a control bulb or the voltmeter to plugs of connection of a safety lock. Tension should not be. Move the checked wire here and there. If the bulb lights up, so there is a short circuit. The same inspection can be carried out on any element of electric equipment, even the switch.
Check of reliability of grounding
Disconnect the accumulator and connect one wire of a control bulb with the power supply to "weight", and "mass", the second to a wire, of the checked element. If the bulb lights up, so grounding as it should be.
Check of integrity of a chain
For check of integrity of a chain use a control bulb with the power supply. If the bulb lights up, so a chain as it should be.
Search of a gap in a chain
If on a chain there does not pass current, most often it is caused by the unreliable or oxidized connection. Shake a suspicious wire or the socket of connection – it can restore conductivity.